Customer Satisfaction - Kano Model
Every market oriented company has one important goal – to satisfy the customer’s needs. It is easier to say than to do. But still, the satisfaction can be tracked by systematic measurement, and can also be improved by corrective action plan that are derived from customer satisfaction survey.
Posted: Feb 2013
How to Satisfy Your Customers?
Which services or products can be used to obtain a high level of customer satisfaction? Which service features of a beverages supplier have more than proportional influence on customer satisfaction and which attributes are an absolute must in the eyes of your customers?
So far customer satisfaction was mostly seen as a one-dimensional construction – the higher the perceived service-level (or product quality), the higher the customer‘s satisfaction and vice versa. But fulfilling the individual requirements to a great extent does not necessarily imply a high level of customer satisfaction. It is also the type of requirement which defines the perceived service or product quality and thus customer satisfaction.
Kano‘s model from 1984 basically distinguishes between three types of service and product requirements which influence customer satisfaction in different ways:
1) Must-be requirements (Key Dissatisfies):
If these requirements are not fulfilled, the customer will be extremely dissatisfied. On the other hand as the customer takes these requirements for granted their fulfillment will not increase his satisfaction. Fulfilling must-be requirements will only lead to a state of "not dissatisfied". Must-be requirements are therefore hygiene-factors and a decisive competitive factor. If they are not fulfilled, customers will not be interested in cooperation with the contractor at all.
2) One-dimensional requirements (Dual Enhancers/Detractors):
With regard to these requirements customer satisfaction is proportional to the level of fulfillment. The higher the fulfillment, the higher customer‘s satisfaction and vice versa. One-dimensional requirements are usually explicitly demanded by the customer.
3) Attractive requirements (Key Enhancers):
These requirements are the product or service criteria which have the greatest influence on how satisfied a customer will be with a given product or service. Attractive requirements are neither explicitly expressed nor expected by the customer. Fulfilling these requirements leads to more than proportional satisfaction. If they are not met, however, there is no feeling of dissatisfaction.
Examples of Key Dissatisfiers
The examples of Must-be requirements (Key Dissatisfiers) are:
• Responsive to your needs, questions or problems
• Friendliness and politeness of sales personnel
• Available and easily contactable sales personnel
• Reliability and services provided by the delivery personnel
• Trustworthy and reliable sales personnel
• Flexible and effective problem solving
Examples of Key Enablers
The examples of Attractive requirements (Key Enhancers) are:
• Offering broad packaging types and sizes that are tailored to maximize your sales and profits
• Efficient consumer advertising
• Flexible and effective complaint management
• Providing efficient tailor-made promotions
• Bringing in new consumer and business insights to help you increase your beverage sales.
The Dual Enhancers and Detractors (one dimensional requirements) are attributes which can be found on both sides, between key dissatisfies and key enablers.