Abbreviations and Terms
Last In First Out (LIFO) - Inventory accounting method by which the newest goods in stock are sold first.
Liabilities - The items owed by the company at the moment at which the balance sheet is drawn up; alternatively understood as the sources of funds for the company.
Licensing refers to granting legal permission ( Licence ) for something, like producing, using or selling. Read More
Liquidity - Refers to how soon a particular asset or liability position on the balance sheet will become a cash movement.
Listing Fee – Financial compensation requested by retailers from their Suppliers, as a "favor" or for covering "expenses" of listing a new product. This is possible in situation when Retailer have sufficient market power to impose this condition.
Listing of SKU – The process of making product available for sales in the outlet.
Loan - Money borrowed for which the lender receives interest.
Loan repayment - The reimbursement of the amount borrowed through a loan.
Long-term credit - Money borrowed over the long-term, ie. which is not required to be paid back within a few periods.
Long-term liability - A source of financing which the company intends to keep in its books for a relatively long period of time; one which does not need to be paid back soon: usually long-term loans and equity capital.
Market is the area where the sellers and buyers meet in order to exchange particular product or service. Read More
Market Failure is the term that describes situation where outcomes of the market are not Pareto efficient... Read More
Market Power is the ability of the company or the group of the company to raise and maintain the price of the product above the level... Read More
Market Share is the measure of relative size of the company... Read More
Material & labour expenses- The cost of purchasing materials and paying for labour needed for the production of goods.
Merger of the companies is process of joining of two or more companies into existing or to a new company. Read More
Merchandising – The process of effective arrangement of products in the place of sales with the purpose of enhancing the sales from that point. Read More
Monopolistic Competition is the market situation of specific industry that shows elements of both monopoly and competition. Read More
Net cash flow - The change in cash amount during a period: cash in minus cash out.
Net fixed assets - The remaining value of the investment in long-term assets after deduction of accumulated depreciation.
Non-Governmental-Organization ( NGO ) is the organization that is not funded by the government... Read More
Numeric Distribution – The Availability of Product in the market expressed as a percentage of outlets that have product listed versus total universe of outlet. Example: Outlet universe is 100 outlet; 45 outlets have specific product in portfolio; Numeric Distribution = 45%.
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